10 Best Super Automatic Espresso Machines: Updated Picks


Our top picks for best super-automatic espresso machines are from Jura, Gaggia and Breville brands.

A photo of a kitchen counter with the Jura superautomatic espresso machine, next to washed dishes with white kitchen tiles in the backgrounds.

You want to wake up every morning to the perfectly brewed, silky-smooth, flavor-bursting cup of coffee. But you don’t want to drive to the coffee shop every day to get it. Simply put: you need the best super automatic espresso machine. Not so easy, we know. That’s why we’ve pulled all our technical and barista expertise to come up with the list of the best ones out there.

Choose the right one, and you start every day on the right foot – the perfect cup of coffee in hand. Choose the wrong one, and you’ll end up with watery, strange-tasting brown gloop, and a feeling of immense regret as you just blew $900+.

We have tried and tested many home espresso machines so we shortlisted the best automatic espresso machines – no junk, no regrets. We also reveal a little-known secret to help you avoid wasting hundreds, if not thousands of dollars when buying one. We’ve also backed up every argument for/against the machine with quotes from industry professionals on the issue in question. Rest assured that our recommendations come from true coffee experts.

10 Picks for the Best Automatic Espresso Machine This year

To help you find the espresso machine that can change your life we’ve compiled a list. Our choices for best super automatic espresso machines will improve your mornings. How? By saving you both time and money.

Best overall

The name of the game with the Jura E8 is programmability, and that’s what makes it our overall favorite this year. And we aren’t alone; it has long been a top selling model. It gives you the feel of dialing in your espresso, just like a pro barista, but in a fully automated setting with no learning curve.

photo of jura e8

photo of jura e8 disassembled

Using the color display, you can control the amount of coffee and milk, the temperature of both, and the milk texture in your quest for the perfect shot. And the pros will all tell you that those factors matter (1).

Normally, light roasts and larger brew ratios will require higher brew temperatures, whereas darker roasts and smaller brew ratios will require lower brew temperatures.

Or you can let the machine take the reins and opt for one of 12 preprogrammed specialty drinks. Either way you’re in for a delicious caffeine fix.

This machine contains all of Jura’s highest end patented technologies, including the Pulse Extraction Process, the AromaG3 grinder, the Intelligent Water System, and the Fine Foam Technology. Together they ensure the most delicious espresso with the creamiest milk foam wrapped up in the easiest to use package.


  • Includes pulsed extraction and Fine Foam technologies
  • Sleek Swiss design and stainless steel build
  • Lots of customizable options
  • Easy to use and clean


  • Expensive
  • Milk carafe sold separately

Best Value

2. De’Longhi ESAM3300 Magnifica

  • Drinks: Espresso (multi-length), Americano, Cappuccino, Latte, Hot water

  • Water tank capacity: 60 ounces 
  • Bean hopper capacity: 8.8 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 75 seconds
  • Brew group: Extractable
Delonghi Magnifica

The De’Longhi Magnifica has a lot to offer for well under $1000. That’s probably why it has been awarded Amazon’s Choice, and it’s certainly why it’s our pick for Best Value. Most cheap home espresso machines are a disappointment, but the Magnifica is the rare exception (2).

To a certain extent, you get what you pay for with home espresso machines. This is why it’s a lot harder to make good espresso at home than it is to make a good pour over.

De’Longhi has done an excellent job deciding which features to offer to keep this machine both affordable and high-performance.

photo of delonghi esam3300 machine

photo of delonghi esam3300 inside

To start, it features a stainless steel conical burr grinder with 13 different grind settings to dial in that perfect brew. You can customize your espresso by adjusting shot length and coffee strength, and you can choose to brew one or two drinks at a time. Unlike the Jura machines, this one has a removable brew group, which makes the occasional deep clean much simpler.

De’Longhi has opted to save money in two places. First, the Magnifica uses a rotary dial control rather than a digital display. Second, the milk frothing system is a manual wand rather than an automatic frother. However, the wand is equipped with the company’s patented Cappuccino System, which makes steaming foolproof, even for a latte novice.


  • Adjustable brew strength
  • Fast heat-up time
  • Easy-to-use cappuccino system
  • Good value for money


  • Plastic case
  • No way to add a water filter

Bargain Pick

3. Gaggia Brera

  • Drinks: Espresso, American, Milky Drinks, Hot water

  • Water tank capacity: 40 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 8.8 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 60 seconds
  • Brew group: Removable
Gaggia Brera

The Gaggia Brera is the least expensive machine on this list, which is all the more impressive given that it is made in Italy by a very well-established and reputable brand. In fact, historians credit Gaggia with pioneering espresso as we know it (3).

photo of gaggia brera

With high pressure and golden crema, Gaggia’s lever machine marks the birth of the contemporary espresso.

Gaggia make some of the best fully automatic espresso machines. They are popular among espresso novices and pros alike, and for good reason. They tend to pair high-end components with a stylish design.

photo of gaggia brera opened

The Brera is a relatively compact model that is very easy to use. The trade-off for its simplicity is that you don’t have a lot of options for dialing in an espresso, so we prefer this one for Americanos and milk-based drinks like lattes and cappuccinos.

Milk frothing is done using the manual Panarello steam wand. Panarello wands infuse a small amount of air into your milk along with steam making it easier to achieve the perfect milk texture. While it’s still a bit harder to use than an automatic frother, once you get the hang of it, you can produce better results.


  • Premium Italian craftsmanship
  • Adjustable brew strength
  • Affordable price
  • Automatic pre-infusion cycle


  • Plastic back and sides
  • No control over brew temperature
  • Manual Pannarello steam wand takes practice

Best Compact Machine

4. Smeg Fully Automatic Coffee Machine

  • Drinks: Ristretto, Espresso, Coffee, Hot Water, Ristretto Light, Espresso Light, Long Coffee

  • Water tank capacity: 47 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 5.3 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 40 seconds
  • Brew group: Removable

The Smeg Fully Automatic Coffee Machine receives mixed reviews online, but that’s because this espresso machine has a very specific target audience. It’s for retro design fans first, coffee lovers second.

photo of smeg superautomatic front

photo smeg superautomatic inside

That doesn’t mean it makes bad coffee, only that it offers few features for it’s price. You’re paying a premium for the gorgeous design and brand name. But for many consumers, the ability to tinker endlessly with custom options isn’t appealing. The Smeg coffee machine delivers excellent ristretto, espresso, and coffee at the touch of a button – and in a beautiful package.

It features smooth rounded curves and the 1950s aesthetic for which Smeg is known. The front is a classy brushed aluminum, while the plastic back and sides are available in four colors: black, white, taupe, and red. It’s the narrowest espresso machine on this list, measuring just 7 inches across, a feat accomplished through recent advances by brands like Smeg and others  (4).

With more precision in espresso machine design, they can be made much smaller – without sacrificing on technology.

The Smeg espresso machine is available with or without a steam wand. If you opt for the steam wand version, which costs a hair more, you’ll need to put in a little pratcice to master the manual wand. But once you have it dialed, it’s easy to make delicious lattes and cappuccinos.


  • Beautiful compact design
  • Easy-to-use four button interface
  • Quick heat-up time
  • Fast and quiet built-in grinder


  • Overpriced
  • No bypass shute
  • Plastic back and sides

Best For Espresso Lovers

5. Jura ENA 4

  • Drinks: Espresso, coffee, espresso doppio, and café doppio

  • Water tank capacity: 37 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 4.4 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 30 seconds
  • Brew group: Fixed
jura ena 4 super automatic

If you’re not a fan of lattes and cappuccinos, you can save a lot of money by opting for a machine without a milk frothing system. The new Jura ENA 4 is the brand’s cheapest model for this reason, but it still offers the same high-end espresso as the much more expensive machines and the same sleek, modern design.

photo of jura ena 4

photo of jura ena 4 top view

The ultra-compact ENA 4 replaces the popular Jura A1 as the brand’s espresso-focused machine, but it features a bit of a style upgrade and optional wifi connectivity (5).

ENA 4’s sleek black body and diamond-patterned water tank echo the aesthetics of JURA’s avant-garde ENA 8 series but with a menu tailored to the espresso purist.

The ENA 4 is compact, grinds coffee quietly, and delivers a strong cup of coffee. It includes Jura’s patented Pulse Extraction Process (P.E.P.), which uses short pulses of water to ensure optimal extraction. It also features the AromaG3 conical burr grinder, which is twice as fast as previous options. If you’d rather use pre-ground coffee, there’s a bypass doser.

There are three programmable buttons for drink size, and brewing requires just a press of a button. Coffee strength is also adjustable, as the variable brewing unit holds between 6 and 10 g of coffee. Though the ENA 4 can brew a double espresso or coffee, it only has one spout, which is worth considering if you’re half of a couple as most larger machines can do two drinks at a time.


  • Most affordable Jura model
  • PEP extraction for high-quality coffee
  • Sleek design and compact size


  • No milk frothing system
  • Only makes one drink at a time


Miele coffee and espresso machines are perennially popular for their easy-to-use appeal and modern aesthetic. Their simple, classy design heightens every kitchen without looking oversized or out of place. The drop-in milk siphon keeps the machine’s clean look when not in use.

The new Miele CM5310 Silence is an upgrade to an old favorite, the CM5300. The biggest change is a new grinder that, as you might guess, is much quieter. This results from redesigned burrs, better efficiency, and improved sound dampening. Take note if you prefer to ease gently and silently into your morning.

Another impressive feature is the ability to brew full pots of coffee, something rarely seen in super-automatic espresso machines (6).

Miele has also added dedicated coffee pot functionality to make it even easier to brew for company.

I worried it might be a gimmick, but it works exceptionally well, delivering a flavorful brew of up to 40 ounces. However, you do need to buy a carafe separately – on top of an already fairly pricy model.

The Miele CM5310’s versatility continues with 10+ customizable specialty drinks and a dedicated 2x button for making two drinks simultaneously. 


  • Very quiet grinder
  • Can brew up to a full pot of coffee
  • Programmable specialty drinks
  • Milk siphon for one-touch milk-based drinks


  • Expensive
  • Carafe sold separately

Best for Coffee Geeks

7. Breville Oracle Touch

  • Drinks: Espresso, Americano, Latte, Cappuccino, Flat White

  • Water tank capacity: 84 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 8 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 10 minutes
  • Brew group: In-built with portafilter
Breville Oracle

The Breville Oracle Touch is the super automatic espresso machine for anyone who takes an interest in the nerdy details of the perfect coffee and wants to feel like a real barista. It’s a great compromise between user input and ease of use. Though it comes with a hefty price tag, everything you’re paying for is valuable (7).

photo of breville oracle

When we when we think about features that need to be included on a product, they need to be a feature that’s going to deliver an actual tangible benefit, as opposed to just being a feature for features’ sake.

The full color digital display makes it easy to choose one of five pre-programmed drinks or to design and save a custom drink. The built-in grinder and automatic tamper prepare a large 22 g dose, which ensures a rich and flavorful espresso, just like you’d expect from a real cafe.

photo breville oracle display

Coffee geeks will appreciate that the Oracle, even the non-Touch model, is a dual boiler, so you can brew espresso and prepare the milk at the same time. They’ll also fawn over the PID for temperature control, which is the best system for accurate and precise temperature control. Even specialty coffee beans will be well-served.

The only downside is that it takes longer than the others to heat up, on the order of 10 minutes, because it uses boilers rather than a thermoblock.


  • Easy-to-use full-color touchscreen
  • Can brew and steam simultaneously
  • Brews up to 22 g coffee dose
  • PID temperature control


  • Takes 10 minutes to heat up
  • Expensive


8. Terra Kaffe TK-01

  • Drinks: Espresso, Americano, Cappuccino, Latte, Hot Water, Milk

  • Water tank capacity: 57 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 12 ounces
  • Heat-up time:  <30 seconds
  • Brew group: Removable

Terra Kaffe is a lesser-known brand, but its flagship TK-01 espresso machine has quickly become a hit with the Home Grounds staff. This is a coffee nerd’s super-automatic espresso machine, giving you an unusual amount of control over the brewing process – even while making your drink at the press of a button.

Using the modern touchscreen display, you can dial in your perfect shot by adjusting water volume, brew temperature, coffee dose, and even brew pressure! If you’re making an Americano, you can choose the amount of water added. And if you’re making a milk-based drink, you can adjust the volume and texture of milk.

“The milk foam that this produces, I think, is better than what a lot of coffee shops are serving these days. So I am very happy with the cappuccinos I get from this machine.”

photo of terra kaffe machine

Only four pre-programmed specialty drinks are on the menu, but the complete control of brewing variables allows you to craft all your favorites. With a few tweaks, the latte can easily become a flat white.

The TK-01 is an attractive machine with a modern, minimalist look, and it’s available in black or white. We were a little disappointed that the exterior is mostly plastic, but that’s an understandable compromise given its affordable price tag. And it even includes an insulated milk carafe that can be stored in the fridge between uses.

If you wanna learn more, Homegrounds’ writer and reviewer, Marina Maletic, wrote about the machine in more detail in her Terra Kaffe TK-01 review. You can also pick up some insights about brewing with the Terra Kaffe TK-01 in this video review:


  • Can dial in espresso to your preference
  • Can adjust milk foam texture
  • Sleek modern design
  • Very attractive price


  • Can’t really grind fine enough
  • Mostly plastic casing
  • Many small maintenance tasks

Best for Lattes

9. Philips 3200 with LatteGo

  • Drinks: Espresso, Coffee, Americano, Latte Macchiato, Hot water

  • Water tank capacity: 61 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 8.8 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 60 seconds
  • Brew group: Removable
Phillips coffee maker

It’s no surprise that our favorite machine for lattes is the Philips 3200 with LatteGo. It’s right there in the name! In fact, this compact little espresso machine, has a lot of similarities with the famous Saeco PicoBaristo. It has a lot of things going for it, only one of which is the excellent automatic frothing system.

That system, which Philips calls LatteGo, mixes milk, air, and heat in a special frothing chamber before pouring it atop your latte. The totally-hands-free system produce perfect silky milk foam professional baristas strive for (8).

Though there is disagreement within the coffee world about what milk’s proper texture ought to be, we prefer to craft a silky “microfoam” – something akin to wet paint.

Plus, the LatteGo design doesn’t use any tubing, making it far more hygienic than many alternatives. In between uses, the milk carafe can be removed and stored in the fridge.

philips 3200 front view

philips3200 bean basket

Along with LatteGo, the 3200 features an intuitive interface that makes it easy to select and program your drink. You can customize coffee strength, coffee and milk volume, and temperature. The ceramic burr grinder has 12 adjustable settings and is rated to deliver at least 20,000 cups of coffee. That should keep you happily caffeinated for years to come. Learn more in HomeGrounds’ full review of the Philips super-automatic espresso machine.


  • Hands-free LatteGo frothing
  • Can control coffee strength and brew temperature
  • Very easy to clean
  • Durable ceramic burr grinder

Best Under $1000

10. Delonghi ECAM35020 Dinamica

  • Drinks: Espresso, Americano, Long Coffee, Iced Coffee, Latte, Cappuccino, Macchiato, Flat White

  • Water tank capacity: 61 ounces
  • Bean hopper capacity: 10.5 ounces
  • Heat-up time: 40 seconds
  • Brew group: Removable
Photo of Delonghi ECAM35020 Dinamica

The Delonghi Dinamica has everything you expect from a super-automatic espresso machine, like a built-in grinder, one-touch specialty drinks, and an intuitive user interface. But it has a few special features we love, along with a very reasonable price point. 

This is the first and only super-automatic espresso machine that brews iced coffee. I’m not talking about just pulling an espresso shot over ice. It uses a longer pre-infusion time, cooler brewing temperature, and extra-strong brew intensity to produce a smooth, concentrated shot that doesn’t taste watered down when served over ice. Just ensure you start with good coffee; even De’Longhi can’t spin bad beans into gold (9).

Our bean-to-cup coffee machines produce excellent coffee, some with just the touch of a button; however the coffee is only as good as the beans that are used.

I was equally impressed with the adjustable milk frother. Many machines at this price just deliver “frothed milk,” failing to consider the difference between a latte and a cappuccino. The Dinamica has a slider to adjust milk texture, which is also handy when frothing non-dairy milk alternatives. The Panarello steam wand is separate, meaning milky drinks aren’t one-touch. But it’s auto-frothing, so using it is as easy as adding a milk jug and pressing a button.

Finally, the conical steel burr grinder has an improved exit shute to minimize grind retention. This means more accurate coffee dosing and guarantees you’re never brewing with yesterday’s stale ground coffee.


  • Good selection of customizable drinks
  • Brews amazing iced coffee
  • Adjustable milk froth texture
  • Minimal grind retention


  • No one-touch milk-based drinks
  • Plastic casing
  • Relatively large

Best for offices

The Jura Giga W3 would certainly be overkill in a home setting, but it is one of, if not the best espresso machine for offices thanks to its huge capacity, extensive drink selection, and ability to make two drinks at a time. And at this point, it’s been well established that an office coffee machine boosts productivity (10).

Now we know scientifically, that co-worker interaction during the coffee break makes the long term benefits even better.Joe Gilbert, veteran of the office vending business

It can prepare a whopping 43 different coffee drinks, from a latte macchiato to a simple pot of coffee, and each one can be customized using the full-color touchscreen display. With adjustable drink temperature, strength, and coffee-to-milk ratio, everyone in the office can craft their own perfect beverage. It’s almost like having a barista on staff!

With such a large and complex machine, cleaning and maintenance will always be a concern, but Jura has made it as simple as possible by automating everything. Integrated rinsing, cleaning, and descaling programs, not to mention warnings when you need them, mean you need never worry about hygiene.

Read our Jura Giga W3 Professional review.


  • Huge number of customizable specialty drinks!
  • Attractive and durable Swiss design
  • Large capacity
  • Automatic cleaning cycles


  • Very expensive
  • No option for direct plumbing
  • Only 5 grind size settings

How To Choose The Right Machine For Your Needs

Because automatic espresso machines are so expensive, you need to read this next part carefully, or risk making the wrong choice and wasting a large sum of money. So how do you select the best super-automatic espresso machine for you?

Here are a few things to look out for when pick the best automatic coffee machine, but note, we are not talking about Nespresso machines (they are not quality machines).

Related: If you’re ready to level up your espresso brewing game, consider a manual espresso machine.

Programmability – How Much Do You Need?

This dictates how much control you have over the brewing process.

Although super-automatic espresso machines do the work for you, many of them still let you choose from a range of settings or pre-programmed options. With super-automatic espresso machines, you might want to control grind size, temperature, or shot strength. Some super automatic espresso machines let you adjust almost every detail, while others are mainly meant to run on a standard program:

They take some of the work out of your hands… Select a program and press a button. It’s much harder to mess it up, but you’re still in control.

If you’re the type who likes customization, go for a super automatic espresso machine with a high level of programmability – so you still have a say in how your coffee is made.

Want to get a better sense of what home espresso making might actually look like? Check out our great video on espresso basics:

Brew Group – Built-In Or Not?

The brew group is one of the most vital parts of the espresso machine, as it’s where the actual brewing happens. It is the mechanism on the front of the espresso machine that carries hot pressurized water into the filter basket. On a semi-automatic or manual espresso machine, the brew group is the piece that you lock the portafilter into. Our guide on semi-automatic vs automatic espresso machines discusses the differences between both types in more detail.

Some super automatic espresso makers have detachable brew groups, making them easy to clean or open up for inspection if something goes wrong. Other machines have a fixed, non-removable brew group (11). This built-in type is designed to be self-cleaning, which is handy.

If you like taking a hands-on approach to the care and maintenance of your coffee equipment, opt for one with a detachable brew group.

Want Your Milk Steamed Automatically, or Do it Yourself?

Many super automatic espresso machines have automatic functions for steaming or frothing milk to make lattes, cappuccinos and the like (11). However, some of them don’t, requiring you to use a traditional steam wand instead.

If you’re short on time or just want the machine to do this part for you, go for a machine that has a built-in system for heating and frothing milk.

Water Tank and Bean Hopper Capacity

Automatic espresso makers vary in terms of their capacity: water tank size, milk carafe size, and bean hopper (that feed the whole bean coffee into the burr grinder). This impacts how much espresso they can churn out without needing to be refilled.

Choose based on your needs: If it’s just for your own enjoyment, a smaller one will do. But if you want to brew for your family or office, choose something with enough capacity. Some super automatic espresso machines can only handle a few shots at a time, while others will comfortably make at least a dozen shots in a row.

How is one machine different from the others?

There are a lot of things all super automatic espresso machines have in common. They are automatic (duh), so they already check the easy-to-use criterion, with ready-made programs available at your fingertips.

But the best automatic espresso machines have something special about them. It might be highly programmable, easy to maintain, or extremely well-designed. Depending on your personal style of coffee drinking, you can find an option that is best suited for you.

The Little-Known Secret To Save Lots Of Money When Shopping Around

Sure, making your own cup of coffee instead of getting one from a coffee shop already saves you money. But do you want to know how to save up to $500 when buying an automatic coffee machine? Below, you’ll notice that some machines have an option that says “SEE REFURBISHED PRICE.”

Why? Because we have found a few retailers that offer refurbished versions of these super automatic espresso machines. Click through to see if they have any machines available, or read our guide on refurbished espresso machine marketplaces.

Refurbished machines are not brand new although they do look and feel brand new.

Buying a refurbished machine is often a better decision than buying one brand new because:

  • They have been serviced, returned and put through tests to make sure they are performing at peak levels.
  • You save hundreds, maybe thousands of dollars, off the regular price.

You’re probably thinking: “Sounds good. But what’s the catch?” There is only a limited quantity available. Often times, you will click through and these machines will be out of stock. If this happens please don’t email us and complain – we have no control over the stock.

This means that you have three options right now:

  1. Buy a normal/regular espresso machine instead of a super automatic espresso machine. You’ll have to learn the ropes of making espresso, so you’ll have a learning curve to deal with each morning (for the first while, expect to spend 10-30 minutes each morning learning the skill + drinking poorly brewed coffee).
  2. Buy a super automatic espresso machine, brand new (be warned: they are expensive).
  3. Save some serious cash right now by buying a refurbished machine. Some of the companies below offer a 30-day satisfaction guarantee, meaning you can try a machine and if it’s not for you, return it within 30 days for a refund.

Automatic Coffee Machines Feature Comparison


12 specialty coffee drinks

Ristretto, Espresso, Coffee

Ristretto, Espresso, Coffee, Cappuccino, Espresso doppio, Macchiato, Latte macchiato, Flat white, Frothed milk, Hot water

43 specialty coffee drinks

Coffee, Espresso, Cappuccino, Foamed milk, Hot water

Best Overall



12 specialty coffee drinks

Best For Black Coffee



Ristretto, Espresso, Coffee

Most Compact



Ristretto, Espresso, Coffee, Cappuccino, Espresso doppio, Macchiato, Latte macchiato, Flat white, Frothed milk, Hot water

Best for Offices


43 specialty coffee drinks

Best Cappuccinos



Coffee, Espresso, Cappuccino, Foamed milk, Hot water

The Verdict

While every one of the machines on this list put up a strong fight for the contender of best super automatic espresso machine, there is one that shines above the others: the Jura E8.

Check to see if there is a refurbished model available. You might be able to save about $500.

Jura E8 Black


You can put any kind of coffee in espresso machine. But make sure to use a medium or dark roasted bean if you want your espresso to taste better. In terms of taste and strength, using an Italian or Espresso roast is considered best. Do NOT put oily coffee beans in an automatic machine; it will cause clogs and problems.

9 BARs of pressure is a good amount of pressure for espresso (12). This is equal to 9 times the amount of natural pressure at sea level. But, today, some espresso machines have built-in pressure pumps operating at levels as high as 15 or 17 BARs.

You maintain an espresso machine with regular cleaning and descaling. If you’re using your machine on a daily basis, you should aim to clean it once a week. The weekly clean doesn’t need to be a high maintenance regime, a simple backflush with water will do the job. But, every 200 shots or so a more thorough backflush is necessary to keep your machine running smooth. That’s the time you should use the proper cleaning tablets or powder.

You should descale your espresso machine as often as recommended by the manufacturer. A lot of newer models come with an indicator that will let you know when it’s time to descale your espresso machine. Here are some more tips on descaling.

  1. La Marzocco USA. (2019, May 30). Basic Espresso Theory. Retrieved from
  2. Stanley, Z. (2023, April 17). How can consumers make better espresso at home? Retrieved From
  3. Stamp, J. (2021, June 19). The Long History of the Espresso Machine. Retrieved from
  4. Stanley, Z. (2023, April 19). Why is precision so important for espresso machines? Retrieved from
  5. Whole Latte Love. (2023). JURA ENA 4 Super-Automatic Espresso Machine – Full Metropolitan Black. Retrieved from
  6. Seattle Coffee Gear. (2022). Miele CM5310 Silence Superautomatic Espresso Machine. Retrieved from
  7. Bryman, H. (2019, June 13). From Pro Scene to Home Machines: A Conversation with Breville Coffee Guru Phil McKnight. Retrieved from
  8. Blue Bottle Coffee. (n.d.). Milk and Art. Retrieved from
  9. Daily Coffee News Staff. (2022, November 14). De’Longhi Partners with UK Subscription Provider Beans Coffee Club. Retrieved from
  10. For VE South. (2012, July 17). Research Says: Coffee Machine at the Center of Office Productivity. Retrieved from
  11. Prinsloo, M. (2018, November 17). How Do Espresso Machines Work? Retrieved from
  12. Espresso Recipes: Time. (2019, May 22). Retrieved from


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